The science of heat, temperature, work, pressure, entropy, enthalpy...all governed by statistical mechanics!

### Boyle's Law

At constant temperature, the product of the pressure, \(P\), and volume, \(V\), of an ideal gas is constant: $$P_1 V_1=P_2 V_2$$

### Charles' Law

At constant pressure, the volume of an ideal gas is directly proportional to its temperature. $$V_1\,/\,T_1=V_2\,/\,T_2$$

### Gay-Lussac's law

The pressure exerted on the sides of a container by an ideal gas of fixed volume is proportional to its temperature. $$P_1\,/\,T_1=P_2\,/\,T_2$$

### The ideal gas law

Combine all of the laws above, and get the "ideal gas law": $$PV = nRT \, \, \textrm{or}\,\,\, PV = kNT \,$$ where \(P\) is pressure in Pascals, \(V\) is volume in Liters, \(n\) is number of moles, \(R\) is universal gas constant, \(T\) is temperature in Kelvin, \(k\) is the Boltzmann constant and \(N\) is the number of gas molecules.

Corrections to this equation are needed for real gasses, dependent on their molar weight and volume.

### Calculate with ideal gas law

All values must be in SI units (as given above), because the constants, R and k, are in the units J/K/mol and J/K respectively.

Defaults are set to standard temperature and pressure and a 1 liter volume.

### Gas particles in a container with a piston

The "hits/time" on the piston are what creates the pressure. More particles = more overall hits. Faster particles means more hits in a given time period. Less volume means particles are more likely to hit the piston.

Move the sliders below to independently change the variables V, N, and T.

The gauge on the right shows the effect of the changes on the pressure.

Note: this simulation is still a work in progress.